Before I delve into the details of how to take the trains, let me help you understand some of the basic information about the system.
The subway system is the main public transportation system in New York. It is one of the oldest and largest public transportation systems in the world (in terms of number of stations). With some 5.7 million riders on a given weekday, it is one of the primary modes of transportation for the majority of New Yorkers and tourists. The system is operated by a subsidiary of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA).
The subway system is usually just referred to as the "trains." Locals say "I can take the train to your place" to generally mean that they take the subway. The subway is never referred to as the metro, underground, or tube.
Unless noted otherwise, I mean the subway system if I just use the word train by itself. While trains mostly run underground in Manhattan, a good portion of trains run on elevated tracks in the other boroughs. The whole subway system operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. It essentially never closes, except for major incidents such as hurricanes.
While the subway system is the primary mode of transportation in New York, it is not the only transportation system in the greater metropolitan area. Other large, train-based transportation systems that you should not confuse with the New York subway include the following:
With the exception of the AirTrains, these trains are also referred to as "commuter trains" because commuters from outside New York take these to commute in and out of the city on a daily basis. This guide does not apply to any of these transportation systems.
To avoid confusion, some locals refer to these transportation systems by their names. They'll say, "I'm taking Metro-North this weekend," "Let's take New Jersey Transit to the airport," or "I'm coming in from the PATH train."
New York City is divided into five boroughs:
The New York subway system operates in Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn, and the Bronx. It never leaves New York City. You have to take one of the commuter trains mentioned previously to do so.
The boroughs are often used as a direction of travel for trains:
The Staten Island Railway is a separate train system that runs on Staten Island only. Even though it is often depicted on the New York subway map, there does not exist a physical connection between the two systems. You have to take the (free) Staten Island Ferry or cross the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge to get to Staten Island. However, there is a free transfer between the two systems (you pay only once in one system, and the second swipe with the same farecard within two hours will be free in the other system).
The street system in Manhattan is composed of a rectangular street grid. Streets travel east and west, while avenues travel north and south. (This is not entirely accurate, since the grid system is not perfectly aligned with the directions on the compass.) Street numbering increases as you go further north, while avenue numbering increases as you go further west:
This grid system is not perfect. For instance, 4th Ave is named Park Ave. for most of its stretch and the grid system does not really exist below 14th St. However, the concept of this grid suffices for now. Keep this concept in mind as it will help you find subway stations and navigate maps.
Roughly speaking, Manhattan can be divided into three areas:
While Uptown, Midtown, and Downtown are geographic regions of Manhattan, the words uptown and downtown can also mean your direction of travel. If you head north or towards the Bronx or Queens, you can say you are headed "uptown"; if you head south or towards Brooklyn, you can say you are headed "downtown."